Tuesday, January 10, 2012


Britain is the country's largest and most populous part of the states that make up the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland). The other countries are Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Often the English name used to refer to the whole country.
Britain's territory covers two thirds of the island of Britain, is bordered by Scotland to the north and west Wales.
In contrast to Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, the UK does not have a government and local parliament (DPRD level as) himself.



Political state is a sovereign territory with a single kingdom. The entire surface of the Earth (not including the territorial waters of the Antarctic coast) say shared between the state geography. Now there are 192 countries that diiktiraf Pertubuhan the United Nations 191 countries and the Vatican State.
Besides this, there is no sovereign territories of other countries who want diiktiraf as in the above purpose. Half of these countries have de facto Guard against anything regions and their populations, such as Abkhazia, but not mistaken for the state for not diiktiraf as having sovereignty. On the other side also, in half the countries in antarabangsa kewujudannya diiktiraf, there is no central ruling kingdom or kingdoms crowd there de facto. These kingdoms are not said to have its own state, but standing on the country concerned.

Symbols of State

British national flag, known as St. George Cross, the flag of the country since the 13th century. Actually, the flag was used as the maritime territory of the Republic of Genoa. British monarch pays tribute to the Government of Genoa from the year 1190, so that British ships could use the flag as a symbol of protection when passing through the waters of the Mediterranean.


Region (region) England

Greater London (Greater London)
North East England
North West England
Yorkshire and the Humber
West Midlands
East Midlands
East of England
South West England

Major rivers



Newcastle upon Tyne

South East
South West
East Midlands
West Midlands
Yorkshire and
the Humber
North East
North West


England covering two thirds of the island of Great Britain and received land borders with Scotland to the north and west by Wales. While in the south of England, separated by France by the English Channel. The location is astronomical: 50 ° N - 61 ° N and 11 ° West - 15 ° west, while the total area is 229,898 km ² which has a varied landscape.

History of the English language

English history began with the birth of the English language on the island of Britain about 1,500 years ago. English is a West Germanic language derived from dialects of the Anglo-Frisian islands brought to Britain by Germanic immigrants from several parts of the northwest area now called the Netherlands and Germany. Initially, Old English dialects is a group that reflects the diverse origins of the kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxons in England. One of these dialects, eventually the dominant West Saxon. Then the original Old English language then influenced by two waves of invasion.
The first wave of invasion is the invasion of the speakers of the language of the Scandinavian branch of the German family. They conquered and inhabited some parts of Britain in the 8th century and 9th.
Then the second wave of the invasion of this tribe is Norman in the 11th century that bertuturkan a French dialect. Both the English invasion has resulted in "mixed" to some degree (although it never became a mixed language literally).
Living together with members of the ethnic Scandinavians eventually creating core simplification of grammar and enrichment of the Anglo-British English.

English Ancient (Proto English)

Germanic tribes, ethnic groups who pioneered the English language (ethnic Anglia, Saxon, Frisian, Jute and probably Frank), traded with and fought with the people of the Roman Empire which tells the Latin language in the process of invasion of Germanic peoples into Europe from the east. With that many Latin words entered the vocabulary of the Germanic nations before they reach the island of Britain. Examples include camp (camp), cheese (cheese), cook (cooking), dragon (dragon), fork (porok, fork), giant (giant), gem (gem), inches (inch), kettle (kettle) , kitchen (kitchen), linen (linen cloth), mile (mi), mill (windmills), noon (lunch), oil (oil, oil), pillow (pillow), pins (nails), pounds (lb), soap (soap), street (street), table (table), wall (wall), and wine (grape). The Romans also gave English some of their own words borrowed from other languages ​​such as the words: anchor (anchors), butter (butter), cat (cat), chest (chest), devil (Satan), dish (dish , food), and the sack (pocket).
According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, around the year 449, Vortigern, King of the British Isles, invited the "Angle kin" (Tribe Anglia led by Hengest and Horsa) to help him in conflict mediation by Pict tribes. In return, the tribe Angles were given land in the southeast of England. Liet5uryi 5u6 wsdalu further help is needed and in response "came men of ALD Seaxum of Anglum of Iotum" (Saxon nation, tribe Anglia, and Jute tribes). Chronicle discusses the influx of many immigrants or settlers who eventually established seven kingdoms, known as the heptarchy. Modern experts argue that most of this story is a legend and has a political motive. Besides the identification of the migrants in the UK with the tribe Angle, Saxon, and Jute is no longer acceptable today (Myres, 1986, p. 46 ff.), Especially after accepted that the language of the Anglo-Saxon language was more similar to Frisian than one language ethnic groups mentioned above.

Old English

The settlers who invaded the island of Britain dominated the local residents who said that the Celtic languages. Celtic language could ultimately sustainable in Scotland, Wales and Cornwall. Dialects that dipertuturkan by the settlers who invaded Britain in the era now called the Old English name, and finally Anglo-Saxon language. Later today, this language influenced the North Germanic languages; Norwegian Kuna who dipertuturkan by the Vikings who invaded and eventually settled in the northeast of England (see Jórvík). The immigrants who settled earlier said that Germanic languages ​​from different branches. Many of their vocabulary roots are the same or similar, though somewhat different grammatical deviations include prefixes (prefix), suffixes (endings), and the law of inflection (takrifan) of many words. Germanic languages ​​of the British people speaking Old English, the affected contact with people who invaded the British Norwegian. This is most likely a reason than the morphological simplification of Old English language, including the loss of noun gender and case (except pronominal). Famous literary works are still preserved from the Old English period is a fragment of the epic "Beowulf". The author is unknown, and this work has been substantially modified by the Christian clergy, composed shortly after.
Then the introduction of Christianity in Britain adds a new wave that carries many loan words from Latin and Greek.
In addition there is an opinion that the influence of the Norwegian language lasted until the early Middle Ages.
Old English period formally ended with the Norman Conquest, when English is drastically influenced by the Norman language is a language called Norman and French language is a dialect.
Anglo-Saxon use of the term to describe the juxtaposition of language and culture Anglia and Saxon is a modern development. According to Lois Fundis, (Stumpers-L, Friday, December 14, 2001)
"The first citation for the second definition of 'Anglo-Saxon', referring to early Bahasa language or a Certain Dialect thereof, comes During the reign of Elizabeth I, from an Historian named Camden, WHO seems a to be the person most Responsible for the Becoming well-known term in modern times. "
"The first citation for the definition of both 'Anglo-Saxon', referring to early English language or a certain dialect of this language, emerged during the reign of Elizabeth I, from a historian named Camden, who seems to be the person most responsible for this term became famous during the modern. "

Middle English

For 300 years after the Norman invasion in Britain in 1066, Norman kings and the nobility only tells the Norman French dialect it is called by the name of Anglo-Norman language. Meanwhile, the English continued as the language of the people. While the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle was written remain until the year 1154, most of the other literature of this period is written in Old French or Latin.
A large number of Norman words borrowed in Old English language and generate a lot of synonyms (for example taken ox / beef (cow), sheep / mutton (goat), and others). This Norman influence to strengthen the sustainability of the English language changes in the succeeding centuries and resulted in a language that is now referred to as Middle English language. One change is the increased use of a unique aspect of English grammar is referred to as affixes or continuous tense with the suffix-ing.
English spelling is also influenced by French in this period. The sounds / θ / and / ð / is now spelled as th and not with Old English letters and ð Þ, which does not exist in French.
During the 15th century, Middle English language changed further. This change is referred to as The Great Shift vowel ("the Great Vowel Shift"), and begins with the deployment of the London dialect of English which came into use by the government and the emergence of print books. Modern English language itself can be said to arise at the time of William Shakespeare. Famous authors from the Middle English period is Geoffrey Chaucer was, with his famous The Canterbury Tales.
Many contemporary sources state that within fifty years after the Norman invasion, most of the Norman outside the palace and told to change the English language. French language at that time remains the official language of government and legislation are prestigious outside of social dynamics. For example, Orderic Vitalis, a historian who was born in 1075 and a son Norman knight, stating that he only learned French as a second language.
English literature began appearing again in about the year 1200 AD when the political climate changes and the fall of the Anglo-Norman language makes it more acceptable. At the end of the century, even the kingdom has changed its English said. While the Anglo-Norman language still used in certain circles until a little longer, but eventually this language is also not a living language again.

Early Modern English

Starting from the 15th century, English became Modern English, which often begins with the Great vowel ditarikh Shift ("Shift Sounds Great").
After that the English began to take a lot of words levies from foreign languages, especially Latin and Greek since the Renaissance. Because many words borrowed from different languages, and English spelling can be said to be inconsistent, then the risk pelafazan wrong words quite high. But the remnants of the forms are more ancient still exist in some regional dialects, especially in dialects in the West Country.
In 1755 Samuel Johnson published the first English dictionary importantly, entitled Dictionary of the Home Language.

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