History of Canada ~ TURN ON YOUR LIFE

Saturday, January 7, 2012

History of Canada

The capital of Canada is Ottawa, where the state Parliament is located. Governor General of Canada, who runs a personal privilege which sent the kingdom, and the Prime Minister, who is head of government, has an official residence in Ottawa.
Originally a union with the former French colonial empire and the colonies of Britain, Canada is a Commonwealth Realm. He is a founding member of the United Nations, Commonwealth and La Francophonie. Canada has two official languages​​:
French is the majority language of Quebec, and is widely used in New Brunswick, and also used in parts of eastern Ontario, north and southwest, and in specific communities throughout Atlantic Canada and Western Canada.
English is the language of the majority in other places with the exception of some communities and territories Nunavut speak Inuktitut is the majority population.
Canada is an industrialized and technologically advanced, well off the energy supply due to the availability of fossil fuels, nuclear energy, and hydroelectric power. Its economy depends on the amount of natural resources and trade, especially with the United States, where Canada has extensive relationships and long (see US-Canada). Although modern, the Canadian economy remains widespread, natural resources remains as a force to control the nation's economy.
Canada has 10 provinces and 3 territori.
Other major cities include Montreal, Vancouver, and Calgary. See List of cities in Canada.
The name "Canada" is believed to come from the Huron-Iroquoia word Kanata, meaning "village", "settlements", or "collection of huts"


Canada has been inhabited by indigenous peoples (known in Canada as a Nation Canada) for more than 40,000 years. The Scandinavian expedition visited about 1000, briefly lived in a place known as L'Anse aux Meadows.
Britain's claim to North America began when John Cabot reached the place he called "Newfoundland" in 1497. French claims began with the exploration of Jacques Cartier (from 1534) and Samuel de Champlain (from 1603). In 1604, French settlers, who became known as Acadia, the first Europeans who settled permanently in Canada, followed by another French settlement at St.. Lawrence and the Atlantic Canada region.
British settlements were established along the Atlantic seaboard and around Hudson Bay. With the expansion of French and British colonies, and the war between France and Britain in Europe, the French and Indian War erupted four times from 1689 until 1763. In the Paris Agreement in 1763, France gave the United Kingdom almost all of New France, including Acadia and what it consists of Quebec and Ontario in the present. United Kingdom founded the colony of Nova Scotia, Lower Canada and Upper Canada. New colony similar to the current legal rights of the Province of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island immediately formed. Canadas cooperate membentukKanada. Coupled with the Cape Breton Nova Scotia.
During and after the American Revolution, many British Loyalists left the Thirteen Colonies unruk settle in Canada. Other settlers during this time of the explosion came from Europe, especially the British Isles.
In 1812, the War of 1812 began when the United States attacked Canada, in the experiment further destruction of the British Empire was afraid if being attacked. The Canadians fought back, and set the burn down the White House was in a sudden attack, make the Americans a ceasefire.
On July 1, 1867, three colonies - Canada, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick - a constitution recognized the United Kingdom, British North America Act, creating the Dominion of Canada. Consists of the provinces Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec (formerly Canada East), and Ontario (formerly Canada West). The term "Confederation" refers to the 1867 Act is unity.
Colony of Great Britain and other territories soon follow Canada: from 1880, including all regions of Canada except Newfoundland and Labrador current, which joined in 1949. Westminster Act 1931 to establish self-government for Canada. Patriasi Canadian constitution that occurred during British rule mengegolkan deed of Canada 1982.
In the second half of the 20th century, some citizens, especially citizens of Quebec French speakers watch liberty / sovereignty in two referendums held in 1980 and 1995. In the 1980 referendum vote for independence is 60%; in the 1995 Quebec referendum vote on independence was 50.6%.


Canada occupies the northern half of North America. He U.S. borders in the south and the northwest by Alaska. The country stretches from the Atlantic Ocean and Davis Strait in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west; that became the motto of this country. To the north lies the Beaufort Sea and Arctic Ocean; Land of Green is located in the northeast.
Since 1925, Canada has claimed the portion of the Arctic ranging from 60 ° W and 141 ° W ([1]). The most northern residence in Canada (and the world) is Canadian Forces Station (CFS) Alert on the northern tip of Ellesmere Island - latitude 82.5 ° N - just 834 kilometers from the North Pole.

Map of Canada

Canada is the world's second largest country in area, after Russia, covering about 41% of North American continent. Most regions of Canada located in the Arctic regions, however, and thus Canada has only the fourth most unused land after Russia, the PRC and the U.S.. Population density is 3.2 people per square kilometer, which is unusually low compared to other states. 80% of Canadians live within 200 km of the U.S., the climate and soil are best planted in the entire country. While Canada covers a wider geographical area than its closest neighbors, had only one-ninth the population.
Densely populated parts of this country is the valley of the Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence River in the east. North of this country is a broad Canadian Shield, the stones are rubbed clean by the end of the Ice Age, landless thin, rich in minerals, and exploited by lakes and rivers - over 60% of the world's lakes are located in Canada. Canada protective surround Hudson Bay area.
Canadian Shield to the Atlantic coast in Labrador, the province of Newfoundland and Labrador uata. Island of Newfoundland, the easternmost region of North America, is at the mouth of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, the world's largest estuary, and the first area inhabited by the Europeans. Canadian waters jutting out to the east of the southern coast of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, between the bay to the north and south Atlantic. Province of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia are divided by the Bay of Fundy, Atlantic branch that has the largest tidal variations in the world. Prince Edward Island is Canada's smallest province.
In western Ontario, Canadian prairies and plains of the province of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta, spread toward the Rocky Mountains, which divide the province of Alberta and British Columbia.
Northern Canadian vegetation tapers from coniferous forests to tundra and finally Barren Arctic in the far north. Northern Canada is surrounded by a vast archipelago consisting of some of the largest island on Earth.
Canada is famous for its cool climate. The winters here can be very rough in many areas, with the risk of blizzards and ice storms and temperatures reaching as low as -50 ° C may occur in the North. Coastal British Columbia to be an exception: he has a winter climate is milder than other places.
In densely populated areas, Panasa season ranges from warm to quite hot, reaching more than 30 ° C at 15 ° C Montreal and Iqaluit, Nunavut. In Vancouver, the temperature is usually between 0 to 25 ° C throughout the year, but in some places in the meadow, the temperature can be as low as -40 ° C in winter and as high as 35 ° C in summer. In the Great Lakes region, the temperature range between -30 ° C to 35 ° C. The country has four distinct seasons.


Privileges as Canadian head of state held by a Governor-General, who is usually a senior politician or other prominent Canadians, who are appointed by the Queen on the advice of the Prime Minister of Canada. Governor-General is a non-partisan figure who meet various ceremonial roles, among others, the Agreement provides the Kingdom of the bill which was passed by the House of Commons and the Senate, read the Speech from the Throne, signing state documents, open and officially end the parliamentary session, and dissolve the parliament during the election period.
Queen and Governor-General in particular, led only in the name of it and have little real power, because they almost always act on the advice of the Head of Government of Canada, the Prime Minister. They served symbolically as continuous administration, ie when there is a change of government.
Constitution of Canada (see text in this page) set the framework of official state, but its realization must be viewed also from the point of the many traditions and conventions that are not written (see the Westminster System). Patriasi constitution, with procedures for amendments, Talah approved in one night in November 1981. Quebec nationalists call that night as the 'Night of the Long Knives' - because it happens without the permission of the Province of Quebec.
Governor General of Canada raised the Prime Minister (PM), which is usually the leader of a political party that holds the most seats in the House of Commons. PM in the appointment of the Cabinet to consider proposals from members of the party convention AM in the House of Commons and Senate. Executive power is run by the PM and cabinet, which all members are sworn in the General Council of Canada Caucus.
Legislative branches of government, namely the Parliament, has two seats: the House of Commons is appointed and an appointed Senate. Election to the House of Commons conducted by the Governor-General on the recommendation of the PM, and must occur no less than 5 years after the previous election.
Canada has three main national parties: the New Democratic Party (NDP), which is an advanced party of leaning towards the "left", the Liberal Party of Canada, and the Conservative Party of Canada, which is a party leaning toward the "right". The left-right classification can be misleading however, because of the number of members in all three main parties, being a "leftist" on social issues, and "the Right" on economic issues. Consequently, the third party may have a complex number of seats in the spectrum of left-right political decision. Regional-based party, the Bloc Quebecois, gaining more seats in the province of Quebec and promote Quebec independence from Canada. Also there are many smaller parties and some are not represented in Parliament in the federal election of 2004. Independent candidates are rarely elected (Chuck Cadman was an exception in the election of 2004).
The Liberal Party has formed government of Canada for 32 years. The leaders who had become Prime Minister of Canada, among others, is that Paul Martin and Jean Chrétien. In December 2003, formed the Conservative Party of Canada. This party is a combination of Canadian Alliance and Progressive Conservative Party of Canada. The Conservatives then won parliamentary elections January 23, 2006, and the Liberal Party became the opposition in parliament. Stephen Harper, who led the Conservative Party, today is the Prime Minister of Canada.
Justice Canada plays an important role in realizing the laws and regulations of federal, provincial, and city and has the power to impose laws that violated the constitution. All judges at the superior level, authorities in terms of appeal and the Supreme Court of Canada is selected and appointed by the federal government, after consultation with non-official body of government. Position at the lowest level court with jurisdiction limited to a province or territory, located in each province and territory governments. Supreme Court of Canada is the last law breaker (see the court system in Canada).
Canada is a member of the UN, the Commonwealth, La Francophonie, Organization of American States, NATO, G8, and APEC.

Canadian provinces and territori

Canada consists of 10 provinces and 3 territories. These provinces have a large degree of autonomy from the federal government, while the territories have somewhat less. Each has a symbol of the provinces and territories.
The provinces are responsible for most of Canada's social programs (such as health care, education, and welfare) and together collect more revenue than the federal government, and is something that is unique among federations around the world. The federal government can initiate national policies that can be rejected by the province, but in reality this rarely happens. "Equal pay" is made by the federal government to ensure uniform standards of service tax accordingly and maintained between rich and poor provinces.
Criminal law is the primary responsibility of the federal government, and uniform across Canada. However penjalanannya is the responsibility of the province, most provinces, running services to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP). RCMP is the only police force in the world who run the legal run of three different levels: municipal, provincial, and federal.
10 provinces that are unicameral, legislators raised with the government headed by PM is selected in the same manner as the PM. Each province also has a lieutenant governor who is not a real government that represents the queen, was appointed on the recommendation of the Canadian PM.
Most of the political climate of the province including the provincial colleagues on three national federal parties. However, some provincial party not formally associated with the federal party that gets the same name. Some provinces have regional political parties, sepertiPartai Saskatchewan.
Political climate of the Province of Quebec is quite different, with major divisions between separatism, represented by the Parti Quebecois, and federalism, represented by the Parti Liberal du Québec.
Dawson City, Yukon, Klondike Gold Flow view.
Three territories that have political power smaller than the province, has diciptakanoleh national law by Parliament rather than the status of those who have been enshrined in the Constitution. There is no lieutenant governor to represent and fulfill the functions of the queen. Commissioners who are appointed by the politically neutral federal government to act as the "Government of Canada's senior representative". Only the Yukon area legislators who follow the same political system as a provincial legislator. Two other territories use a consensus government system with no parties, who each filed as an independent member, and the premier appointed by and from members.
Relations between the federal and territorial governments have been tightened. Many of the opposition between two levels of government have become between the use of resources and funding. The poverty rate in the territory has remained large because of isolation, extreme difficulty and cost of goods supply, and scarcity of jobs.


Main article: Economy of Canada
Canadian economy is now approaching the United States with market-oriented ekonomu system, pattern of production, and high living standards. In the last century, tremendous growth in production, mining, and service sectors has transformed this country from rural to urban industrial economy. Energy can be met alone, Canada has a lot of natural gas reserves on the east coast and the three western provinces, and also many other resources.
Canada has successfully avoided economic recession after 2001 and has maintained the best economic growth in the G8 group. With banyakanya natural resources, skilled labor, and modern capital plant, Canada enjoys solid economic prospects.
Shadowed by two difficulties, the first is the political differences of the constitution between Quebec and other Canadian. This has raised the possibility of separation in the federation. However, because the economy has strengthened, especially in Quebec, has eased fears of disintegration.
Another is the long period of attention concerns the flow of professionals to the south (U.S.) commonly called the "Spending the Brain", because lured by high pay, low taxes, and high-tech opportunities. Simultaneously, "Entered Brain" also occurs, with the influx of educated immigrants (especially from developing countries) to Canada


Canada's two official languages ​​are English and French. On July 7, 1969, the French language is equated with the English language through the federal government. It started as a process that defines Canada as a bilingual and multicultural country in the federal level.
English and French have equal status in the Parliament of Canada, the federal courts and in all federal institutions.
Every person has the right to criminal trial in English or French.
The public has a right, if there is sufficient demand, to receive federal government services in either English or French.
The official language minority groups in many provinces and territories have the right to be taught in their language.
Because multiculturalism is official policy, to become a citizen one must be able to speak either in English or French.
Nearly 98% of Canadians speak either English or French or both.
New Brunswick is the only officially bilingual province, which specifically guaranteed the position of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, with its citizens who have rights the same language at the provincial level, as all citizens of Canada have at the federal level. Some provincial governments, Manitoba and Ontario in particular, offers many services to the minority French population.
Quebec's official language is French, as defined by the French Language Charter that protects the use of French, but also provides certain rights to speakers of English and native languages. Quebec government provides many services in both French and English.
French language mainly spoken in Quebec, Ontario, New Brunswick and southern Manitoba. In the 2001 census, 6,864,615 people registered French as their mother tongue, of which 85% lived in Quebec, and 17,694,835 people registered French as their mother tongue.
Language other than official languages ​​are also important in Canada, with 5,470,820 souls who register a language other than authorized as the official language (3 above statistics also include people who register more than one language). Among the group of mother tongue is not the most important Chinese official language (mother tongue speakers of 853 745), especially Cantonese (322,315), Italy (469 485) and Germany (438 080).

Indigenous groups

The Constitution Act 1982 recognizes three main groups of indigenous people in Canada: Indigenous Peoples, Inuit and Metis. The original population is growing nearly 2 times as fast as any other resident in Canada. Indigenous peoples make up around 3% of Canadians, or roughly 790,000 people. Approximately 69% are indigenous, 26% and 5% Inuit Metis.
Now, more than 50 different languages ​​spoken by the natives, most pronounced only from Canada. However, all but a bit of a slump. In the Northwest Territories and Nunavut, there are 11 official languages: English and French with a special status, and six native languages: Chipewyan, Cree, Dogrib, Gwich'in, Inuinnaqtun, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, North Slavey, and South Slavey. The only indigenous languages ​​are believed to be fully able tersokong today is Cree (72,885 speakers with native language), Inuktitut in the NWT and Nunavut; 29,010 speakers), along with the Cree and Ojibwe, Ojibwe speakers will arrange 150 000).


Education in Canada is provided, funded and overseen by federal, provincial, and local governments. Education within the jurisdiction of the provincial government and the curriculum is supervised by the provincial government. Education in Canada is generally divided on Basic Education (Primary School, Public School), and Secondary Education (High School) and higher education (University, College). In each of the provinces there is no school board that oversees the implementation of educational services and educational programs. Compulsory education for pendudu Canada until the age of 16 years in all provinces in Canada, except for Ontario and New Brunswick, where the compulsory age to 18 years. In some provinces there are some exceptions to no mandatory continuing education at the age of 14 years may be granted under certain circumstances. Canada requires that school for 190 days a year, officially starting from September (after Labor Day) until the end of June (usually the last Friday of the month, except in some cases in Quebec when it was just prior to June 24 - provincial holiday).


The 2001 census recorded 30,007,094 people, and from April 2005 Statistics Canada population has been estimated to number 32.2 million people.
At the Canadian National Census 2001, respondents reported their ethnic origin in.
39.42% of respondents identifying their ethnic origin as "the people of Canada". Most of them believed to come from the legacy of the early immigrants Britain, Ireland and France. 20.17% identified their ethnic origin as the English; 15.75% as a Frenchman, 14.03% as the Scots, 12.90% as Irish.
Several other groups have also been reported (but only Germany (9:25%) and Italy (29.4%) diilaporkan more than 4% of respondents.
The number of "visible minorities" [5] The population is 13% of the population of Canada [6] (not including First Nations, Metis, and Inuit people; the percentage of nonwhites was 17%).


City of Calgary, Alberta the nickname "cow town" by a local Calgary residents. Official motto is the Heart of the New West (just west of Heart).

Canadian culture is heavily influenced by culture and tradition as a result of British and French colonial past. In addition, Canadian culture has also influenced American culture because of its proximity to the two countries and the migration of people, ideas, capital and politics across the border. Although the inherited culture, Canadian culture has developed many unique features. In many ways, a more robust Canadian culture and clearly has grown in recent years, mainly because of a sense of nationhood which include Canada in the years to submit and follow Canada's Centennial in 1967, and also because the focus on programs to support arts and Canadian culture by the federal government.
The Europeans early help from the bottom of Canadian culture. During the colonization of Canada the settlers wrote a lot of folklore about the land around them. Story of Paul Bunyan is a product of French-Canadian folklore and dance style of Newfoundland grak quickly find their home in Ireland.
Many movies, authors, TV shows and American musicians are equally popular in Canada, and vice-versa across boundaries. Many cultural products of the types that are now increasingly sold on the market leading "North America" ​​united, and not specifically a Canadian or American.
U.S. and Canadian governments receive a variety of community workers who are close in matters of trade, economy, and the company official.

Waterfront Vancouver, British Columbia.

Because Canada and the U.S. have grown closer, many Canadians have developed complex feelings and concerns, with regard to what makes Canada the nation that "different" in North America. The presence of American culture that has prompted some fears of the "cultural takeover," and has initiated the formulation of many laws and government institutions to protect Canadian culture. Most distinct Canadian culture remains defined by American culture (See Canadian identity).
In recent years, Canada has increasingly distinguished itself from the U.S. with a more liberal social policy and fiscal policy is more conservative. Government of Canada (and a wider, Canadians) support the idea of ​​universal health care, gay marriage and the decriminalization of marijuana. At the same time, they have supported that fit the budget, tax cuts and free trade. The Canadians also tend to live in or near urban areas are very large such as Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Winnipeg, Ottawa, Calgary, and Edmonton.

National symbol

The use of the maple leaf as a symbol of Canada can be sorted back to the 18th century, and described the current and previous flags, pennies on the dollar, and the symbol. Canada is known for its vast forests and mountain range (including the Rocky Mountains in Alberta and British Columbia) and the wild animals who live with it, such as elk, karibou, otters, polar bears, and grizzly bears. Canada is widely known to the armed Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and products made from domestic natural resources, such as maple syrup. About hockey, Canada's official winter sport, also often used as a symbol of national unity and pride. Snowy, winter, and the climate north of the country also has created a view of the people of Canada.

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